Answered By: Todd White
Last Updated: Oct 18, 2018     Views: 745

This, from p. 171-172 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition.


6.05 Direct Quotations of Online Material Without Pagination


Credit direct quotations of online material by giving the author, year, and page number in parentheses. Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers. If paragraph numbers are visible, use them in place of page numbers. Use the abbreviation para.



Basu and Jones (2007) went so far as to suggest the need for a new “intellectual framework in which to consider the nature and form of regulation in cyberspace” (para. 4).


If the document includes headings and neither paragraph nor page numbers are visible, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following it to direct the reader to the location of the quoted material.



In their study, Verbunt, Pernot, and Smeets (2008) found that “the level of perceived disability in patients with fibromyalgia seemed best explained by their mental heath condition and less by the physical condition” (Discussion section, para. 1).


In some cases in which no page or paragraph numbers are visible, headings may be too unwieldy to cite in full. Instead, use a short title enclosed in quotation marks for the parenthetical citation:



“Empirical studies have found mixed results on the efficacy of labels in educating consumers and changing consumption behavior” (Golan, Kuchler, & Krissof, 2007, “Mandatory Labeling Has Targeted,” para. 4).


(The heading was “Mandatory Labeling Has Targeted Information Gaps and Social Objectives.”)


Ask Us @ CSS commentary:  APA has spoken.

Contact Us

College of St. Scholastica Library
1200 Kenwood Avenue
Duluth, MN  55811

Phone: 218.723.6140

Fax:  218.723.5948

Text:  218.422.6942