Answered By: Todd White
Last Updated: Oct 18, 2018     Views: 908

In the information world there is "recoverable" information and "non-recoverable" information.

An example of the first would be a journal article. You read it for your paper & then cite it. Someone reads your paper, is intrigued by your interpretation of the article, and wants to read. He or she looks in your reference list, finds the full citation, and then accesses the article.

An example of the second, the "non-recoverable" information, is what you are trying to cite. If someone reads your paper, was intrigued by your interpretation of the PowerPoint presentation, and wants to see the presentation, he or she could not. It was never published, and was only available to you because of your attendance at class.

Therefore, we can, for APA's sake, treat this as a "personal communication."

Because there is no way for the reader to view the PowerPoint, you do not need to include it in your reference list. You do need to created an in-text citation when you refer to it in your paper. For more info, see this CSS Library page -

Depending on how you are writing the paragraph, the in-text citation could look something like this -

(M. Y. Professor, In-class PowerPoint presentation, June 8, 2012).

The basics you are providing are: who created it, what was it, and when did you see it.

Hope this gets you going.

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. p. 179

Contact Us

College of St. Scholastica Library
1200 Kenwood Avenue
Duluth, MN  55811

Phone: 218.723.6140

Fax:  218.723.5948

Text:  218.422.6942